Antimicrobial and antiviral activities

Fungi secrete antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. Hispidin is a neuraminidase inhibitor isolated from Phellinus linteus. A proteinase inhibitor was isolated from Lentinula edodes. Atromentin is an antibiotic isolated from Hydnellum peckii. Penicillin, cephalosporins, usnic acid, plectasin, fusidic acid, fumagillin, brefeldin A, verrucarin A, fusafungine, and alamethicin, are antibiotics discovered in fungi that do not produce mushrooms. Strobilurin, azoxystrobin, caspofungin, micafungin, griseofulvin, echinocandin, and papulacandin B, are antifungals discovered in fungi that do not produce mushrooms. Aspergillus nidulans creates the anidulafungin precursor echinocandin B. Anidulafungin or Eraxis (Ecalta in Europe) is a semisynthetic echinocandin used as an antifungal drug . Anidulafungin was originally manufactured and submitted for FDA approval by Vicuron Pharmaceuticals. Pfizer acquired the drug upon its acquisition of Vicuron in the fall of 2005. Pfizer gained approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on February 21, 2006; it was previously known as LY303366. There is preliminary evidence it has a similar safety profile to caspofungin. It has proven efficacy against oesophageal candidiasis, but its main use will probably be in invasive Candida infection; it will probably also have application in treating invasive Aspergillus infection. It is a member of the class of antifungal drugs known as the echinocandins; its mechanism of action is by inhibition of (1>3)?-D-glucan synthase, which is an important component of the fungal cell wall. Echinocandin B is a lipopeptide with antifungal activity. It is a fermentation product of Aspergillus nidulans, and precursor to the antifungal drug anidulafungin. It was the first of the echinocandin class, discovered in 1974 in Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus A 32204 in Germany. Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. They include penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, and penicillin V. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases, such as syphilis, and infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are ?-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. Medical uses The term "penicillin" is often used generically to refer to benzylpenicillin (penicillin G), procaine benzylpenicillin (procaine penicillin), benzathine benzylpenicillin (benzathine penicillin), and phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V). Procaine penicillin and benzathine penicillin have the same antibacterial activity as benzylpenicillin but act for a longer time span. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is less active against Gram-negative bacteria than benzylpenicillin. Benzylpenicillin, procaine penicillin and benzathine penicillin are given by injection (parenterally), but phenoxymethylpenicillin is given orally. [edit]Adverse effects Main article: Penicillin drug reaction Common adverse drug reactions (?1% of patients) associated with use of the penicillins include diarrhoea, hypersensitivity, nausea, rash, neurotoxicity, urticaria, and superinfection (including candidiasis). Infrequent adverse effects (0.11% of patients) include fever, vomiting, erythema, dermatitis, angioedema, seizures (especially in epileptics), and pseudomembranous colitis.