Herbs in use

There are over three hundred herbs that are commonly being used today. Some of the most commonly used herbs are Ginseng (, , renshen), wolfberry (?), Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis, , , danggui), astragalus (, , huangqi), atractylodes (, , baizhu), bupleurum (, chaihu), cinnamon (cinnamon twigs (, guizhi) and cinnamon bark (, rougui)), coptis (, , huanglian), ginger (?, ?, jiang), hoelen (, fuling), licorice (, gancao), ephedra sinica (, , mahuang), peony (white: , baishao and reddish: , chishao), rehmannia (, , dihuang), rhubarb (, , dahuang), and salvia (, , danshen). Goji or wolfberry is the fruit of Lycium barbarum (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ningxia gouqi) and Lycium chinense (Chinese: ; pinyin: gouqi), two very closely related species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae (which also includes the potato, tomato, eggplant, deadly nightshade, chili pepper, and tobacco). It is native to southeastern Europe and Asia. Cinnamon (pron.: /?s?n?m?n/ sin-?-m?n) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, which are also referred to as "cassia" to distinguish them from "true cinnamon". Astragalus (As-tra-ga-lus) is a large genus of about 3,000 species of herbs and small shrubs, belonging to the legume family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. The genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Common names include milk-vetch (most species), locoweed (in western US, so e species; although most locoweeds are not genus Astragalus but in related genera) and goat's-thorn (A. gummifer, A. tragacanthus). Some pale-flowered vetches are similar in appearance, but vetches are more vine-like. Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales. The c. 50 species of Ephedra grow in dry climates over wide areas of the northern hemisphere, including southwestern North America, Europe, north Africa, and southwest and central Asia, and, in the southern hemisphere, in South America south to Patagonia. In temperate climates, most Ephedra species grow on shores or in sandy soils with direct sun exposure. Common names in English include Joint-pine, Jointfir, Mormon-tea or Brigham Tea. The Chinese name for the Ephedra species is mahuang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: mahuang; Wade–Giles: ma-huang; literally "cannabis yellow"). Ephedras is also sometimes called sea grape (from the French raisin de mer), a common name for the flowering plant Coccoloba uvifera. The genus was included in the family Scrophulariaceae or Gesneriaceae in some older classifications. The current placement of the genus is in neither Scrophulariaceae s.s. nor Plantaginaceae s.l. (to which many other former Scrophulariaceae have been transferred). Earlier molecular studies suggested that its closest relatives were the genera Lancea and Mazus (Oxelman et al., 2005), which have been included in Phrymaceae (Beardsley & Olmstead, 2002). Subsequently it was found (Xie et al., 2009) that Rehmannia and Triaenophora are jointly the sister group to Lindenbergia and the parasitic Orobanchaceae.