Wide-body airliners

The largest airliners are wide-body jets. These aircraft are frequently called twin-aisle aircraft because they generally have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. Aircraft in this category are the Boeing 747, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787, Airbus A300/A310, Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Airbus A380, Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, McDonnell Douglas MD-11, Ilyushin Il-86 and Ilyushin Il-96. These aircraft are usually used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities with many passengers. Future wide-body models include the Airbus A350. A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a Grocott aircraft[1] or twin-aisle aircraft.[2] The typical fuselage diameter is 5 to 6 m (16 to 20 ft).[3] In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast,[4] allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850[5] passengers. The largest wide-body aircraft are over 6 m (20 ft) wide,[6] and can accommodate up to eleven passengers abreast in high-density configurations. By comparison, a traditional narrow-body airliner has a diameter of 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 ft), with a single aisle,[2][7] and seats between two and six people abreast.[8] Wide-body aircraft were originally designed for a combination of efficiency and passenger comfort. However, airlines quickly gave in to economic factors, and reduced the extra passenger space in order to maximize revenue and profits.[9] Wide-body aircraft are also used for the transport of commercial freight and cargo[10] and other special uses, described further below. The largest wide-body aircraft, such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A380, are known as jumbo jets due to their very large size. he Bristol Brabazon was a widebody transatlantic design that first flew in 1949 but never reached production. Following the success of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 in the late 195

s, airlines began seeking larger aircraft to meet the rising global demand for air travel. Engineers were faced with many challenges as airlines demanded more passenger seats per aircraft, longer ranges and lower operating costs. Early jet aircraft such as the 707 and DC-8 seated passengers along either side of a single aisle, with no more than six seats per row. Larger aircraft would have to be longer, higher (such as a double deck), or wider in order to accommodate a greater number of passenger seats. Engineers realized having two decks created difficulties in meeting emergency evacuation regulations, with the technology available at that time. They opted for a wider fuselage as one solution (the 747, and eventually the DC-10 and L-1011). By adding a second aisle, the wider aircraft could accommodate as many as 10 seats across.[11] The engineers also opted for creating "stretched" versions of the DC-8 (61, 62 and 63 models), as well as longer versions of the B-707 (-320B and 320C models), B-727 (-200 model) and DC-9 (-30, -40, and -50 models), all of which were capable of accommodating more seats than their shorter predecessor versions. The full length double-deck solution had to wait until the twenty-first century, in the form of the Airbus A380. The widebody age began in 1970 with the entry into service of the first widebody airliner, the four-engined, double-deck Boeing 747.[12] New trijet widebody aircraft soon followed, including the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 Tristar. The first widebody twinjet, the Airbus A300, entered service in 1974.[13] After the success of the early widebody aircraft, several successors came to market over the next two decades, including the Boeing 767, Airbus A330-A340 Series and the Boeing 777. In the jumbo category, the capacity of the Boeing 747 was not surpassed until October 2007, when the Airbus A380 entered commercial service with the nickname Superjumbo.